Steven J Wunderink
Cultural Exegete: I look at today's culture and history to find a unique view of morality and life
The name Pharaoh is a Greek translation of the name for “Great House” in Ancient Egyptian. So, similar to the “White House” in US, the Great House was the location of the leader.
The kings themselves came from many different places, most natural born Egyptian, some Nubian (Sudanese) some Lybian (later dynasties) some are the mysterious Hyksos (wandering people).
Many became king by conquering the previous dynasty, many became king with the old dynasty fell to ruin or without heirs, by far most became king through family (dynastic) succession.
There are still a few Pharaoh’s missing in the dynasty lists. Especially in confusing “Intermediate Periods” and at the change of dynasties. Some co-ruled with their sons, wives, even daughters, so it is hard to tell when one started and other ended.
To fully answer your question you will need to find a good book on the pharaohs, Tylsdey has some good ones, but many are around, you can probably pick them up for pretty cheap since Egypt is the most written about ancient civilization. TOO MANY books out there to choose from. I haven’t found any bad ones, just expensive ones.
Where did the Pharaohs come from? About 37 000 years ago, Cro-Magnon came from the Middle East into North Africa:
Egyptians especially the Copts, carry MTDNA from this migration into North Africa:
Later the Middle Eastern Farmers migrated into Egypt:
Coptic Christians are the descendants of these ancient migrations into Egypt and still carry the most ancient Egyptian DNA. The ancient Pharaohs are the ancestors of modern Copts:
Gwydion Madawc Williams
Read a lot about history, and note some general patterns.
I assume you mean the title of Pharaoh. Its literal meaning is ‘Great House’. It became the standard title of the ruler from the 12th dynasty onwards.
The Pharaoh was the King of both Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, combining the crowns of both. Each of these in turn had been unified in a process of unification that is rather obscure.
B. A. History & Japanese, Monash University (2008)
The predynatistic kings of Egypt are buried at Abydos. There’s a legend of Menes as the king who united upper and lower Egypt. Egyptologists have been unable to identify Menes exactly with these predynastic kings.
Other legends trace the kings back to a utopian time when the gods ruled. But it’s part of longer myths about where the world come from.
There’s evidence that Neolithic Egyptians sacrificed falcons and cattle. The Horuses (there’s more than one god called Horus. It’s complicated) are associated with falcons. There’s evidence of Horus, Set, and a cow goddess in the predynastic tombs. Later Ra, Hathor, and Osiris all have associations with cattle so there’s evidence of religious continuity from early on (Let’s not get into Akenaten here).