In the US, Lawyer, attorney, solicitor, and barrister all are different words for basically the same thing - a person who is learned in the law and licensed in some form or another to practice law in a given jurisdiction. Some people will claim that one can be a "lawyer" and not be licensed, but in practical common use the term refers to one licensed to practice law.
A litigator is a specific type of lawyer who tries cases in court, as opposed to a transactional lawyer who might work on contracts and never see the inside of a courtroom.
A paralegal is a professional who may or may not be licensed, but who assists a lawyer in their regular duties; they may do research, draft documents, liaise with clients, but cannot give legal advice or represent someone else as their attorney.
An agent is simply one person who acts on behalf of another, or on behalf of a corporation; employees are "agents" of the company for which they work, and a lawyer may act as an "agent" of their client.
Finally, an advocate is someone who represents another in a legal situation, and who takes that clients interests and protects them; generally speaking, advocates are usually lawyers, although in the US there are nonlawyer advocates who may represent crime victims, abuse victims, or children (as guardians ad litem).
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All these terms are used for law graduates in different position in different countries. A person becomes lawyer when he graduates from a law college. After getting degree from college he is considered as a lawyer.
In some jurisdictions Lawyer is also referred as attorney. An attorney holds the power of attorney can be a lawyers and acts on others behalf in legal matters.
Solicitor and barristers are also legal practitioners. These term are used for lawyers in different countries. On the other hand, paralegal, agent and litigator are different from advocates.
An advocate is a person who supports a cause and exercises his right to be heard, or represents a party before a court or tribunal to defend it or plead on behalf of it.
There are different types of courses for paralegal such as a paralegal course with certification and without certification.
A paralegal is a person who is qualified by education. Who has training experience in doing different legal works of qualified lawyer a paralegal after getting certification from certain institute can start his work independently?
An agent is just one person, who acts on behalf of another, or on behalf of a corporation; employees are "agents" of the company for which they work, and a lawyer may act as an "agent" of their client.
Finally, A litigator is a specific type of lawyer who tries cases in court, as opposed to a transactional lawyer who might work on contracts and never see the inside of a courtroom.
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Robert Charles Lee
Print broker, financial printer, nonpracticing lawyer
A good desktop dictionary should have been enough to show the differences. Anyway, I'll give you the highlights myself to save you the trouble:-
Lawyer is the generic and all-encompassing term for a person who is in law. Most usually, it's in the sense of someone who practises law (licensed by the authorities to give legal advice and represent people in a legal capacity). (There are loose, colloquial meanings for the term, but I won't go into them as those are basically irrelevant for the question's aims.)
Solicitor and barrister are lawyers in countries that have a 'split' legal profession, and the UK is the prime example of this. The USA is the prime example of the opposite -- a 'fused' legal profession -- so in American parlance the licensed lawyer is an attorney-at-law (or more usually just "attorney").
At the simplest level:-
The solicitor is a non-trial lawyer (non-courtroom lawyer) and basically the front end of the legal profession. The solicitor's main role is to provide legal advice, representation and other paperwork matters for the client. The solicitor has limited rights of audience in court in comparison with the barrister.
The barrister is a trial lawyer (courtroom lawyer). The main role is to provide specialist legal advice (called "opinions") and advocates the client's case in a court hearing. So in some countries, the barrister is alternatively titled advocate. The barrister enjoys unlimited rights of audience at all levels of the court system. The barrister is retained (engaged) by the solicitor, not the client directly.
I won't go into details of the training, qualification pathways and licensing procedures because they vary from country to country.