Deposits of Individuals Taken by Credit Institutions - about 25% are dollars and euros, which is more than it was before the fall of the oil price.
According to Russian law, all transactions have to be done in roubles, but this doesn’t prohibit pegging prices in contracts to dollars.
In everyday life it’s been many years since I last saw a price tag in dollars or euros (to circumvent the law they are called “условные единицы” which can be translated as “notional units”), but the prices of imported goods obviously depend on the exchange rate and are frequently changed when rouble is volatile.
No more than three years ago the real state prices followed the dollar to rouble exchange rate, but they stayed about the same when rouble sharply dropped.
As for big business, especially dealing with exporting oil and gas, it seems to be a common practice to nominate prices in dollars.
works at Yaroslavl State University
That depends on the social class of the people.
Poor people like me almost do not use US dollars, I carried some small sum in USD (not more than $100) in 90’s only once.
The richer the people become, the more likely they are to use US dollars much often. During the begin of Ukrainian crisis, I worked in office where nearby offices were occupied by construction developers and realtors, housing trade agents. These people are sufficiently richer than me. When Ruble began to fall down, they started to buy USD / Euro a lot, contributing to further fall of Ruble. That happened all over the country and these people are not even a top class, they are just upper middle class.
Russian rich oligarchs use US dollars the most, because they are connected to raw resource export, where the prices usually are in US dollar.
Besides the deposits / investments there are lot of people who have printed currency US dollars. Zakharchenko was caught with $120M of US Dollars in his flat which were transferred directly from San Francisco federal bank and we do not even hear how it was performed.
"The packs, each of which contain $200,000, had not been opened since being unloaded from international flights. That’s why the paper strips on the banknotes contained stamps of some of the 12 regional banks of the Federal Reserve System. For example, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco," according to the report.
The investigators have asked the U.S. central banking system to reveal what Russian bank had ordered the currency. "Finding out what Russian bank had ordered the dollars in cash will shed light on the financial dealings of the holder (Zakharchenko)," the paper said.
In Russia US Dollar serves a handy currency to rich / top upper class people who have stable, protected from quick inflation currency, while poor people like me have only Rubles which are high inflation currency and thus always makes us poorer. It’s a rat race, but even much worse than Western poor people rat race, because in the West at least poor and rich share the same US Dollar / Euro, while in Russia rich people have their dollar and are happy that Ruble is cheap - cheap Ruble allows them to hire employers for low wage, to buy domestic goods like food cheaply.
Some Westerners already discovered that and moved to Moscow / St.Petersburg for an “inexpensive life”. But that is available only to these who has their wages in foreign currency, not in Rubles.